Pathological types of eye and head gaze-coordination in neurological disorders

W. H. Zangemeister and Lawrence W. Stark, Neuro.Ophthalmology 1983, Vol. 3, No. 4 , Pages 259-276

The patterns of coordinated eye-head movements in gaze shift are influenced by preconditions of the experimental protocol. Gaze shift movements fall into four distinct types with respect to eye-head latency, each one with a particular frequency of occurrence. Patients with neurological diseases show characteristic deviations of their gaze type from normal. Their eye-head latencies are affected differently on variant levels of the CNS depending upon the type of disorders/disturbances of the motor or sensory systems only, or combined ones. Various modes of adaptation, or ‘maladaptation’, are demonstrated and analyzed in these patients.